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Euro leag

euro leag

Dez. Ziel des 25 Millionen Euro teuren Projekts am Kraftwerksstandort Bei der Leag- Pressekonferenz (v.l.): Oliver Stenzel, Leiter Kraftwerk. Die UEFA Europa League ist nach der UEFA Champions League der zweithöchste von der .. Zum Vergleich: Der Champions-League-Sieger erhält Euro und darüber hinaus auch deutlich höhere Einnahmen aus dem Die offizielle Spiel- und Ergebnisliste der UEFA Europa League.

Euro Leag Video

LEAGUE OF BROTHERS! - EURO 2016 #1 (Fifa 16 Ultimate Team)

The European Union has seven principal decision making bodies, its institutions: Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union.

The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union.

There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives , which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states , and EU regulations , which are immediately enforceable in all member states.

Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process [].

Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality.

Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union pass legislation jointly in nearly all areas under the ordinary legislative procedure.

This also applies to the EU budget. The European Commission is accountable to Parliament, requiring its approval to take office, having to report back to it and subject to motions of censure from it.

The President of the European Parliament currently Antonio Tajani carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The European Council gives political direction to the EU.

It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council currently Donald Tusk , the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state either its head of state or head of government.

The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies.

It acts externally as a " collective head of state " and ratifies important documents for example, international agreements and treaties.

Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, [] driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them.

The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe , an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg. It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed.

Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union.

The Commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It operates as a cabinet government , with 28 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state.

The 28 Commissioners as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. In , the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.

The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".

The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level.

EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence.

These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate.

While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:.

The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.

These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [q] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants.

Under the principle of supremacy , national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and within limits even constitutional provisions.

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity , freedom , democracy, equality , the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states.

Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on rule of law, human rights and democracy.

The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition. Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership.

The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [w] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.

The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation.

They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.

Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria.

Europol Headquarters in The Hague , Netherlands. Seat of Frontex in Warsaw , Poland. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism.

Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition , [] family law, [] asylum law, [] and criminal justice.

The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.

This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.

It was not, however, until when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq.

The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment.

The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department [] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

President Donald Trump , The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. G20 summit in Hangzhou, Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs [] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.

Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia.

It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.

In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states.

In , the average among EU countries was 0. Because of its ability to shape rules and norms on a global level as well as its attempts to influence neighbouring countries, the EU has been called an emerging or potential superpower by scholars and academics like T.

The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation.

This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country.

Critics of the concept of the EU as an emerging superpower point to the lack of either a strong European military or of unified EU foreign policy.

The European Union has established a single market across the territory of all its members representing million citizens.

The currency union represents million EU citizens. Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , have their headquarters in the EU.

Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe.

EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area.

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union with wide-ranging impact on economic growth and employment. Port of Antwerp container terminal, second-largest seaport in the European Union.

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states.

The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU , [] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market.

Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.

The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.

Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom.

The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.

This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.

This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union.

The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining.

In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.

The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.

To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community.

The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce.

In the estimated network covers: Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network.

In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in , connecting Helsinki in 2h.

Spain places second in High-speed rail constructed km in the world after China. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels.

To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.

This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world. Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms.

Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.

This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.

The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations.

The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards.

The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.

In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.

More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions.

Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility.

The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing.

Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU.

However, there are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.

The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity.

The flag used is the Flag of Europe , which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. The blue represents the West, while the number and position of the stars represent completeness and unity, respectively.

United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils.

The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions. Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe.

Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union.

The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. Charles the Great , also known as Charlemagne Latin: Carolus Magnus and later recognised as Pater Europae "Father of Europe" , [] [] [] has a symbolic relevance to Europe.

The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification.

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.

The vast majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the continent, see Europe. For other uses, see EU disambiguation. Location of the European Union, its outermost regions , and the overseas countries and territories.

Council of the EU European Parliament. History of the European Union and History of Europe. Ideas of European unity before Area possibly settled up to c.

Area settled up to BCE. Treaties of the European Union. Demographics of the European Union. List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits and list of urban areas in the European Union.

Languages of the European Union. Religion in the European Union. Member state of the European Union. Geography of the European Union. Budget of the European Union.

Area of freedom, security and justice. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Common Security and Defence Policy. If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world.

Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s.

Energy policy of the European Union. European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition. Sport policies of the European Union.

Media freedom in the European Union. However, only three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.

Basque is not an official language of the European Union but has a semi-official status. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.

Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture.

Retrieved 3 August Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ".

Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 19 March Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 6 September The Council of the European Union.

Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 8 September Vienna Institute of Demography. Revue des Sciences Religieuses in French.

Retrieved 11 March Christendom and European Identity: The Legacy of a Grand Narrative Since Religion and the Struggle for European Union: Confessional Culture and the Limits of Integration.

Legitimating the European Union: Aspirations, Inputs and Performance. The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity.

The Greek East and the Latin West: A Study in the Christian Tradition. European Union in 21st Century. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Social Sciences.

Theories of European Integration. The Origins and development of the European Community. Retrieved 28 April September " [A British Patriot for Europe: Retrieved 13 January The College of Europe.

Fifty Years of Service to Europe. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 13 October The Rey Commission , Europa web portal.

Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 25 June The World Transformed, to the Present. Activities of the European Union.

Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 12 October From isolation to EU membership".

Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 26 June The New York Times. Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 11 December Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 16 December Official Journal of the European Union.

Retrieved 2 February Archived from the original on 2 February Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies.

The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.

The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9. The geological history of Europe traces back to the formation of the Baltic Shield Fennoscandia and the Sarmatian craton , both around 2.

Finally, and very soon afterwards, Laurasia itself split up again, into Laurentia North America and the Eurasian continent.

The land connection between the two persisted for a considerable time, via Greenland , leading to interchange of animal species.

The geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary.

The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles.

The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica , and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents.

Most of the older geology of western Europe existed as part of the ancient microcontinent Avalonia. With the exception of Fennoscandia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks.

The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. The conditions for growth are very favourable. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate.

There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these Alps , Pyrenees are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior.

Others are oriented south-north Scandinavian Mountains , Dinarides , Carpathians , Apennines and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards the sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable.

Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems.

Probably 80 to 90 percent of Europe was once covered by forest. During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted.

However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure.

In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate. The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak.

In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce — pine — birch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached.

In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe.

The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland the steppe extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north.

Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction.

The woolly mammoth was extinct before the end of the Neolithic period. Today wolves carnivores and bears omnivores are endangered.

Once they were found in most parts of Europe. However, deforestation and hunting caused these animals to withdraw further and further.

Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula , Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe Austria, Pyrenees etc.

In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard , a Norwegian archipelago far north of Scandinavia. The wolf , the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in pockets of Western Europe Scandinavia, Spain, etc.

European wild cat, foxes especially the red fox , jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles like snakes such as vipers and grass snakes and amphibians, different birds owls, hawks and other birds of prey.

Important European herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others.

A number of insects, such as the small tortoiseshell butterfly, add to the biodiversity. The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on the islands of the Mediterranean.

Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton , molluscs , echinoderms , different crustaceans , squids and octopuses , fish, dolphins , and whales.

The political map of Europe is substantially derived from the re-organisation of Europe following the Napoleonic Wars in The prevalent form of government in Europe is parliamentary democracy , in most cases in the form of Republic ; in , the prevalent form of government was still the Monarchy.

European integration is the process of political, legal, economic and in some cases social and cultural integration of European states as it has been pursued by the powers sponsoring the Council of Europe since the end of World War II The European Union has been the focus of economic integration on the continent since its foundation in More recently, the Eurasian Economic Union has been established as a counterpart comprising former Soviet states.

The list below includes all entities [ clarification needed ] falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe , [ clarification needed ] geographic or political.

Within the above-mentioned states are several de facto independent countries with limited to no international recognition.

None of them are members of the UN:. Several dependencies and similar territories with broad autonomy are also found within or in close proximity to Europe.

Svalbard is also included due to its unique status within Norway, although it is not autonomous. Not included are the three countries of the United Kingdom with devolved powers and the two Autonomous Regions of Portugal , which despite having a unique degree of autonomy, are not largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs.

Areas with little more than a unique tax status, such as Heligoland and the Canary Islands , are also not included for this reason. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak.

The richer states tend to be in the West ; some of the Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia.

The European Union, a political entity composed of 28 European states, comprises the largest single economic area in the world. This includes ranks according to the CIA: There is huge disparity between many European countries in terms of their income.

Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism. Economies were disrupted by World War I but by the beginning of World War II they had recovered and were having to compete with the growing economic strength of the United States.

After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin, [] and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades.

West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the s. The states which retained a free-market system were given a large amount of aid by the United States under the Marshall Plan.

Until , the European Community was expanded from 6 founding members to With the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in , the post-socialist states began free market reforms: Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia adopted them reasonably quickly, while Ukraine and Russia are still in the process of doing so.

After East and West Germany were reunited in , the economy of West Germany struggled as it had to support and largely rebuild the infrastructure of East Germany.

By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe comprising the five largest European economies of the time namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain.

In , 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone replacing their former national currencies by the common euro.

The three who chose to remain outside the Eurozone were: The European Union is now the largest economy in the world.

Figures released by Eurostat in confirmed that the Eurozone had gone into recession in This number includes Asian Russia Siberia, about 36 million people but excludes the European part of Turkey, Cyprus and the Transcaucasian countries.

Most of Europe is in a mode of Sub-replacement fertility , which means that each new -born generation is being less populous than the older.

The most densely populated country in Europe and in the world is the microstate of Monaco. Pan and Pfeil count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities.

The average number of children per female of child-bearing age is 1. The UN predicts a steady population decline in Central and Eastern Europe as a result of emigration and low birth rates.

Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at Emigration from Europe began [ dubious — discuss ] with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, [] [] and French and English settlers in the 17th century.

Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent. European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America particularly in Uruguay , Argentina , Chile and Brazil , while most of the other Latin American countries also have a considerable population of European origins.

Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. Europe has about indigenous languages, [] mostly falling within three Indo-European language groups: Romance languages are spoken primarily in south-western Europe as well as in Romania and Moldova , in Eastern Europe.

Kartvelian languages Georgian , Mingrelian , and Svan are spoken primarily in Georgia. Two other language families reside in the North Caucasus termed Northeast Caucasian , most notably including Chechen , Avar , and Lezgin ; and Northwest Caucasian , most notably including Adyghe.

Maltese is the only Semitic language that is official within the EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate. Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today.

The four most populous cities of Europe are Istanbul , Moscow , Paris and London , each have over 10 million residents, [6] and as such have been described as megacities.

The next largest cities in order of population are Saint Petersburg , Madrid , Berlin and Rome , each having over 3 million residents. When considering the commuter belts or metropolitan areas , within the EU for which comparable data is available London covers the largest population, followed in order by Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin, the Ruhr area , Rome, Milan, Athens and Warsaw.

The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom or more specifically Latin Christendom , as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam , as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.

This shared cultural heritage is combined by overlapping indigenous national cultures and folklores, roughly divided into Slavic , Latin Romance and Germanic , but with several components not part of either of these group notably Greek and Celtic.

Cultural contact and mixtures characterise much of European regional cultures; Kaplan describes Europe as "embracing maximum cultural diversity at minimal geographical distances".

Historically , religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art , culture , philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity , with Among Protestants, the most popular are historically state-supported European denominations such as Lutheranism , Anglicanism and the Reformed faith.

Other Protestant denominations such as historically significant ones like Anabaptists were never supported by any state and thus are not so widespread, as well as these newly arriving from the United States such as Pentecostalism , Adventism , Methodism , Baptists and various Evangelical Protestants ; although Methodism and Baptists both have European origins.

The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom "; many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.

Christianity , including the Roman Catholic Church , [] [] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century, [] [] [] [] and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East.

Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science.

The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry. Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious , atheist and agnostic people, who make up about There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia , Sweden, former East Germany, and France.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see European Union.

For other uses, see Europe disambiguation. Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between the continents of Earth.

Regions of Europe and Core Europe. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages.

Dark Ages historiography and Age of Migrations. Roland pledges fealty to Charlemagne , Holy Roman Emperor. Modern era and History of Europe.

Geology of Europe and Geological history of Europe. List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe , International organizations in Europe , Regions of Europe , and European integration.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe and Area and population of European countries. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe.

List of European countries by population and Ageing of Europe. Ethnic groups in Europe. Genetic history of Europe. Immigration to Europe and European diaspora.

European folklore and European art. List of Europe-related articles and Outline of Europe. Europe portal Geography portal.

The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.

Population and density figures are from the first results of census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo. Population and area details include European portion only: Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.

However, only the population figure refers to the entire country. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively. This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved , independence.

Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states. International recognition , however, is limited. The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.

Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July CIA estimate. Their status as sovereign nations is not recognised by a vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.

Population figures stated as of census and estimates respectively. Its status as a sovereign nation is not recognised by any sovereign nation, nor the UN.

Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 6 March Retrieved April 20, Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. Ideas from literature and science also have their roots in ancient Greece.

The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. Indo-European poetry and myth. The east face of Helicon: Note also that certain countries in Europe, such as France, have territories lying geographically outside Europe , but which are nevertheless considered integral parts of that country.

Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 9 June James Rennell, The geographical system of Herodotus examined and explained , Volume 1, Rivington , p.

Genesis and the Jewish antiquities of Flavius Josephus. Die Fragmente , vol. De Gruyter, , fragm. Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original on 16 October The Oxford Companion to Archaeology.

Archived from the original on 15 June Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 25 December The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization.

Early Physics and Astronomy: Cambridge University Press , The Battle of Salamis: The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. The Empire at Bay. A History of Greek Literature.

Cantor , The Medieval World to The Politics of Identity and Security. It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire.

Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.

The Essential World History. Retrieved 20 January The Byzantine Empire also interacted with the world of Islam to its east and the new European civilization of the west.

Both interactions proved costly and ultimately fatal. These Christian allies did not accept the authority of Byzantium, and the Fourth Crusade that sacked Constantinople and established the so-called Latin Empire that lasted until was a fatal wound from which the empire never recovered until its fall at the hands of the Ottoman Turks in Queller and Madden The Byzantine Empire Revised Edition.

And though the final blow was struck by the Ottoman Turks, it can plausibly be argued that the fatal injury was inflicted by the Latin crusaders in Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith.

A Novel of Constantinople. However, the fifty-seven years of plunder that followed made the Byzantine Empire, even when it retook the capital in , genuinely weak.

Beginning in , the empire was further weakened by a civil war that lasted until Irvin 10 January History of the World Christian Movement: Earliest Christianity To Continuum International Publishing Group.

Not only did the fourth crusade further harden the resentments Greek-speaking Christians felt toward the Latin West, but it further weakened the empire of Constantinople, many say fatally so.

After the restoration of Greek imperial rule the city survived as the capital of Byzantium for another two centuries, but it never fully recovered.

An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Although the empire was revived, the events of had so weakened Byzantium that it was no longer a great power.

Later they established themselves in the Anatolian peninsula at the expense of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines, however, had been severely weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in and the Western occupation of much of the empire for the next half century.

They fatally wounded Byzantium, which was the main cause of its weakened condition when the Muslim onslaught came. Even on the eve of its final collapse, the precondition for any Western help was submission in Florence.

The course of the Russian history. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 7 June France in the Sixteenth Century.

Macmillan Publishers , Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 3 November The Search for Understanding , pp. The Civilisation of the Renaissance in Italy translation by S.

Penguin History of Europe. The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August A compilation of estimates indicates that Crimean Tartars seized about 1,, Ukrainians, Poles, and Russians from to Controversy in marketing theory: Copernicus to Newton ".

Retrieved 23 June The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. A Chronicle of the French Revolution. The Penguin Atlas of Modern History.

Napoleon Bonaparte and the legacy of the French Revolution. A shortened history of England. History of Trade Unionism. Can the US afford immigration?

Retrieved 11 July

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Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process [].

Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union pass legislation jointly in nearly all areas under the ordinary legislative procedure.

This also applies to the EU budget. The European Commission is accountable to Parliament, requiring its approval to take office, having to report back to it and subject to motions of censure from it.

The President of the European Parliament currently Antonio Tajani carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The European Council gives political direction to the EU.

It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council currently Donald Tusk , the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state either its head of state or head of government.

The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies.

It acts externally as a " collective head of state " and ratifies important documents for example, international agreements and treaties.

Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, [] driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them.

The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe , an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg.

It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed.

Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union.

The Commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It operates as a cabinet government , with 28 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state.

The 28 Commissioners as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. In , the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.

The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".

The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level.

EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation.

In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not.

In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:.

The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.

These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [q] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants.

Under the principle of supremacy , national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and within limits even constitutional provisions.

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity , freedom , democracy, equality , the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states.

Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on rule of law, human rights and democracy. The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world.

The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition. Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership.

The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [w] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.

The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation.

They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.

Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria.

Europol Headquarters in The Hague , Netherlands. Seat of Frontex in Warsaw , Poland. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism.

Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition , [] family law, [] asylum law, [] and criminal justice. The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.

This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.

It was not, however, until when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq.

The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment.

The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department [] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

President Donald Trump , The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. G20 summit in Hangzhou, Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs [] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.

Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia.

It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.

In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states.

In , the average among EU countries was 0. Because of its ability to shape rules and norms on a global level as well as its attempts to influence neighbouring countries, the EU has been called an emerging or potential superpower by scholars and academics like T.

The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation.

This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. Critics of the concept of the EU as an emerging superpower point to the lack of either a strong European military or of unified EU foreign policy.

The European Union has established a single market across the territory of all its members representing million citizens. The currency union represents million EU citizens.

Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , have their headquarters in the EU. Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU.

Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area.

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union with wide-ranging impact on economic growth and employment. Port of Antwerp container terminal, second-largest seaport in the European Union.

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states.

The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU , [] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market.

Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.

The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.

Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom.

The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.

This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.

The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.

This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union.

The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining.

In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.

The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.

To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community.

The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce.

In the estimated network covers: Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network.

In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in , connecting Helsinki in 2h.

Spain places second in High-speed rail constructed km in the world after China. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels.

To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.

This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world.

Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.

This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.

The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations.

The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards.

The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.

In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.

More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions.

Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility.

The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing.

Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU. However, there are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.

The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity.

The flag used is the Flag of Europe , which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. The blue represents the West, while the number and position of the stars represent completeness and unity, respectively.

United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils.

The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions. Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe.

Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union.

The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. Charles the Great , also known as Charlemagne Latin: Carolus Magnus and later recognised as Pater Europae "Father of Europe" , [] [] [] has a symbolic relevance to Europe.

The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification.

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.

The vast majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the continent, see Europe. For other uses, see EU disambiguation. Location of the European Union, its outermost regions , and the overseas countries and territories.

Council of the EU European Parliament. History of the European Union and History of Europe. Ideas of European unity before Area possibly settled up to c.

Area settled up to BCE. Treaties of the European Union. Demographics of the European Union. List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits and list of urban areas in the European Union.

Languages of the European Union. Religion in the European Union. Member state of the European Union. Geography of the European Union. Budget of the European Union.

Area of freedom, security and justice. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Common Security and Defence Policy.

If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s.

Energy policy of the European Union. European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition. Sport policies of the European Union.

Media freedom in the European Union. However, only three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.

Basque is not an official language of the European Union but has a semi-official status. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.

Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture.

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Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 8 September Vienna Institute of Demography. Revue des Sciences Religieuses in French.

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Legitimating the European Union: Aspirations, Inputs and Performance. The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity.

The Greek East and the Latin West: A Study in the Christian Tradition. European Union in 21st Century. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Social Sciences.

Theories of European Integration. The Origins and development of the European Community. Retrieved 28 April September " [A British Patriot for Europe: Retrieved 13 January The College of Europe.

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Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 26 June The New York Times. Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 11 December Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 16 December Official Journal of the European Union.

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Retrieved 3 February The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 19 February Archived from the original PDF on 29 March Political intrigue within the Church in the midth century caused the Western Schism.

During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignon and one in Rome—claimed rulership over the Church.

In the 15th century, Europe started to extend itself beyond its geographic frontiers. Spain and Portugal, the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world.

Soon after the Spanish and Portuguese began establishing large global empires in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania.

The 17th century in southern, central and eastern Europe was a period of general decline. Between and in the central and eastern Europe ended hegemony of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

From the 15th to 18th centuries, when the disintegrating khanates of the Golden Horde were conquered by Russia, Tatars from the Crimean Khanate frequently raided Eastern Slavic lands to capture slaves.

Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia. Meanwhile, in the south, the Ottomans had conquered the Balkans by the 15th century, laying siege to Vienna in The Ottomans again laid siege to Vienna in , but the Battle of Vienna permanently ended their advance into Europe, and marked the political hegemony of the Habsburg dynasty in central Europe.

The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development.

The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the 18th century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts.

These revolutions were eventually put down by conservative elements and few reforms resulted. In , the Austro-Hungarian empire was formed ; and saw the unifications of both Italy and Germany as nation-states from smaller principalities.

As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire seemed imminent, the Great Powers struggled to safeguard their strategic and commercial interests in the Ottoman domains.

The Russian Empire stood to benefit from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire and Britain perceived the preservation of the Ottoman Empire to be in their best interests.

Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution and Greek War of Independence marked the beginning of the end of Ottoman rule in the Balkans , which ended with the Balkan Wars in The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe.

The invention and implementation of new technologies resulted in rapid urban growth, mass employment, and the rise of a new working class.

Two world wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century. World War I was fought between and Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution , which threw down the Tsarist monarchy and replaced it with the communist Soviet Union.

The Treaty of Versailles , which officially ended World War I in , was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions.

Excess deaths in Russia over the course of World War I and the Russian Civil War including the postwar famine amounted to a combined total of 18 million.

Stalin was also responsible for the Great Purge of —38 in which the NKVD executed , people; [] millions of people were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.

The social revolutions sweeping through Russia also affected other European nations following The Great War: Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler in power of what became Nazi Germany.

In , Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to work towards his goal of building Greater Germany. Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in and In , Austria became a part of Germany following the Anschluss.

Later that year, following the Munich Agreement signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy, Germany annexed the Sudetenland , which was a part of Czechoslovakia inhabited by ethnic Germans, and in early , the remainder of Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , controlled by Germany, and the Slovak Republic.

At the time, Britain and France preferred a policy of appeasement. With tensions mounting between Germany and Poland over the future of Danzig , the Germans turned to the Soviets, and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , which allowed the Soviets to invade the Baltic states and parts of Poland and Romania.

The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources.

Around the same time, Germany moved troops into Denmark. The Phoney War continued. France capitulated in June By August Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain , but failed to convince the Britons to give up.

After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in , the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback. The Battle of Kursk , which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front.

The two new superpowers , the United States and the Soviet Union, became locked in a fifty-year-long Cold War, centred on nuclear proliferation.

At the same time decolonisation , which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa.

Germany was reunited, after the symbolic fall of the Berlin Wall in , and the maps of Central and Eastern Europe were redrawn once more.

European integration also grew after World War II. The Treaty of Rome in established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market.

The EU established a parliament , court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency. Europe makes up the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass.

The southern regions are more mountainous, while moving north the terrain descends from the high Alps , Pyrenees , and Carpathians , through hilly uplands, into broad, low northern plains, which are vast in the east.

An arc of uplands also exists along the north-western seaboard, which begins in the western parts of the islands of Britain and Ireland, and then continues along the mountainous, fjord-cut spine of Norway.

This description is simplified. Sub-regions such as the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula contain their own complex features, as does mainland Central Europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that complicate the general trend.

Sub-regions like Iceland , Britain, and Ireland are special cases. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off.

Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies. The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.

The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9. The geological history of Europe traces back to the formation of the Baltic Shield Fennoscandia and the Sarmatian craton , both around 2.

Finally, and very soon afterwards, Laurasia itself split up again, into Laurentia North America and the Eurasian continent. The land connection between the two persisted for a considerable time, via Greenland , leading to interchange of animal species.

The geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary.

The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles.

The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica , and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents.

Most of the older geology of western Europe existed as part of the ancient microcontinent Avalonia. With the exception of Fennoscandia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks.

The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. The conditions for growth are very favourable. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate.

There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these Alps , Pyrenees are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior.

Others are oriented south-north Scandinavian Mountains , Dinarides , Carpathians , Apennines and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards the sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable.

Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems.

Probably 80 to 90 percent of Europe was once covered by forest. During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted.

However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker.

The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure.

In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate. The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak.

In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce — pine — birch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached.

In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe.

The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland the steppe extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north.

Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna.

As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction. The woolly mammoth was extinct before the end of the Neolithic period.

Today wolves carnivores and bears omnivores are endangered. Once they were found in most parts of Europe. However, deforestation and hunting caused these animals to withdraw further and further.

Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula , Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe Austria, Pyrenees etc.

In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard , a Norwegian archipelago far north of Scandinavia. The wolf , the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in pockets of Western Europe Scandinavia, Spain, etc.

European wild cat, foxes especially the red fox , jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles like snakes such as vipers and grass snakes and amphibians, different birds owls, hawks and other birds of prey.

Important European herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others.

A number of insects, such as the small tortoiseshell butterfly, add to the biodiversity. The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on the islands of the Mediterranean.

Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton , molluscs , echinoderms , different crustaceans , squids and octopuses , fish, dolphins , and whales.

The political map of Europe is substantially derived from the re-organisation of Europe following the Napoleonic Wars in The prevalent form of government in Europe is parliamentary democracy , in most cases in the form of Republic ; in , the prevalent form of government was still the Monarchy.

European integration is the process of political, legal, economic and in some cases social and cultural integration of European states as it has been pursued by the powers sponsoring the Council of Europe since the end of World War II The European Union has been the focus of economic integration on the continent since its foundation in More recently, the Eurasian Economic Union has been established as a counterpart comprising former Soviet states.

The list below includes all entities [ clarification needed ] falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe , [ clarification needed ] geographic or political.

Within the above-mentioned states are several de facto independent countries with limited to no international recognition. None of them are members of the UN:.

Several dependencies and similar territories with broad autonomy are also found within or in close proximity to Europe. Svalbard is also included due to its unique status within Norway, although it is not autonomous.

Not included are the three countries of the United Kingdom with devolved powers and the two Autonomous Regions of Portugal , which despite having a unique degree of autonomy, are not largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs.

Areas with little more than a unique tax status, such as Heligoland and the Canary Islands , are also not included for this reason.

It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. The richer states tend to be in the West ; some of the Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia.

The European Union, a political entity composed of 28 European states, comprises the largest single economic area in the world.

This includes ranks according to the CIA: There is huge disparity between many European countries in terms of their income. Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism.

Economies were disrupted by World War I but by the beginning of World War II they had recovered and were having to compete with the growing economic strength of the United States.

After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin, [] and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades.

West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the s. The states which retained a free-market system were given a large amount of aid by the United States under the Marshall Plan.

Until , the European Community was expanded from 6 founding members to With the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in , the post-socialist states began free market reforms: Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia adopted them reasonably quickly, while Ukraine and Russia are still in the process of doing so.

After East and West Germany were reunited in , the economy of West Germany struggled as it had to support and largely rebuild the infrastructure of East Germany.

By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe comprising the five largest European economies of the time namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain.

In , 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone replacing their former national currencies by the common euro. The three who chose to remain outside the Eurozone were: The European Union is now the largest economy in the world.

Figures released by Eurostat in confirmed that the Eurozone had gone into recession in This number includes Asian Russia Siberia, about 36 million people but excludes the European part of Turkey, Cyprus and the Transcaucasian countries.

Most of Europe is in a mode of Sub-replacement fertility , which means that each new -born generation is being less populous than the older.

The most densely populated country in Europe and in the world is the microstate of Monaco. Pan and Pfeil count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities.

The average number of children per female of child-bearing age is 1. The UN predicts a steady population decline in Central and Eastern Europe as a result of emigration and low birth rates.

Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at Emigration from Europe began [ dubious — discuss ] with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, [] [] and French and English settlers in the 17th century.

Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent. European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America particularly in Uruguay , Argentina , Chile and Brazil , while most of the other Latin American countries also have a considerable population of European origins.

Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. Europe has about indigenous languages, [] mostly falling within three Indo-European language groups: Romance languages are spoken primarily in south-western Europe as well as in Romania and Moldova , in Eastern Europe.

Kartvelian languages Georgian , Mingrelian , and Svan are spoken primarily in Georgia. Two other language families reside in the North Caucasus termed Northeast Caucasian , most notably including Chechen , Avar , and Lezgin ; and Northwest Caucasian , most notably including Adyghe.

Maltese is the only Semitic language that is official within the EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate.

Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today.

The four most populous cities of Europe are Istanbul , Moscow , Paris and London , each have over 10 million residents, [6] and as such have been described as megacities.

The next largest cities in order of population are Saint Petersburg , Madrid , Berlin and Rome , each having over 3 million residents. When considering the commuter belts or metropolitan areas , within the EU for which comparable data is available London covers the largest population, followed in order by Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin, the Ruhr area , Rome, Milan, Athens and Warsaw.

The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom or more specifically Latin Christendom , as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam , as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.

This shared cultural heritage is combined by overlapping indigenous national cultures and folklores, roughly divided into Slavic , Latin Romance and Germanic , but with several components not part of either of these group notably Greek and Celtic.

Cultural contact and mixtures characterise much of European regional cultures; Kaplan describes Europe as "embracing maximum cultural diversity at minimal geographical distances".

Historically , religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art , culture , philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity , with Among Protestants, the most popular are historically state-supported European denominations such as Lutheranism , Anglicanism and the Reformed faith.

Other Protestant denominations such as historically significant ones like Anabaptists were never supported by any state and thus are not so widespread, as well as these newly arriving from the United States such as Pentecostalism , Adventism , Methodism , Baptists and various Evangelical Protestants ; although Methodism and Baptists both have European origins.

The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom "; many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.

Christianity , including the Roman Catholic Church , [] [] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century, [] [] [] [] and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East.

Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry.

Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious , atheist and agnostic people, who make up about There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia , Sweden, former East Germany, and France.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see European Union.

For other uses, see Europe disambiguation. Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between the continents of Earth. Regions of Europe and Core Europe. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. Dark Ages historiography and Age of Migrations. Roland pledges fealty to Charlemagne , Holy Roman Emperor.

Modern era and History of Europe. Geology of Europe and Geological history of Europe. List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe , International organizations in Europe , Regions of Europe , and European integration.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe and Area and population of European countries. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe.

List of European countries by population and Ageing of Europe. Ethnic groups in Europe. Genetic history of Europe.

Immigration to Europe and European diaspora. European folklore and European art. List of Europe-related articles and Outline of Europe.

Europe portal Geography portal. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.

Population and density figures are from the first results of census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo. Population and area details include European portion only: Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.

However, only the population figure refers to the entire country. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.

This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved , independence.

Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states. International recognition , however, is limited. The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.

Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July CIA estimate. Their status as sovereign nations is not recognised by a vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.

Population figures stated as of census and estimates respectively. Its status as a sovereign nation is not recognised by any sovereign nation, nor the UN.

Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 6 March Retrieved April 20, Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. Ideas from literature and science also have their roots in ancient Greece.

The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. Indo-European poetry and myth. The east face of Helicon: Note also that certain countries in Europe, such as France, have territories lying geographically outside Europe , but which are nevertheless considered integral parts of that country.

Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 9 June James Rennell, The geographical system of Herodotus examined and explained , Volume 1, Rivington , p.

Genesis and the Jewish antiquities of Flavius Josephus. Die Fragmente , vol. De Gruyter, , fragm. Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original on 16 October The Oxford Companion to Archaeology.

Archived from the original on 15 June Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 25 December The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization.

Early Physics and Astronomy: Cambridge University Press , The Battle of Salamis: The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History.

5 thoughts on “Euro leag

  1. Absolut ist mit Ihnen einverstanden. Darin ist etwas auch mich ich denke, dass es die ausgezeichnete Idee ist.

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