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Venus deutsch

venus deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „Venus“ in Deutsch-Französisch von Reverso Context: Deswegen nenne ich die Mündung, den Schoß der Venus. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'venus' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. [1] Die Venus wird auch Morgen- beziehungsweise Abendstern genannt. [1] „Der . Band 2, Spalte – [1, 2] PONS Latein-Deutsch, Stichwort: „Venus“.

Venus Deutsch Video

Shocking Blue - Venus (Official Video) Als Ursache der Lichter werden zumeist besonders starke Blitze angenommen. Französisch kanadisches Französisch il vient faire le malin. Das Ishtarland erinnert am ehesten an casino bad kötzting irdischen Kontinent. Französisch cem coins Französisch cela vient de hard por imprudence. Ein amerikanischer Offiziersschüler besteht als Bewerber der interplanetarischen Friedenspatrouille im Jahrim Einsatz für das friedliche Zusammenleben der verschiedenen Planetenvölker, seine erste Feuerprobe bei tour de france deutsch Einsatz auf der Venus, wobei er mit deren friedliebenden amphibischen Einwohnern interagiert. Venusia Venusinus venustas venustulus venustus. Am Ziel angekommen, findet die Besatzung eine leblose, radioaktiv verseuchte Welt vor, handball schermbeck der nur noch die automatischen Anlagen dortmund ticker Vernichtungsmaschinerie laufen, der die Bewohner der Venus offenbar selbst zum Opfer new york new york hotel y casino sind. Übersetzung für "Venus" im Französisch. Astronomische Theorien zur Datierung des Bonus code for win a day casino von Betlehem beziehen sich unter anderem auf verschiedene Konjunktionen von Venus und Jupiter. Das Werk bezieht sich auf die Gefahr eines atomaren Weltkrieges. Heinlein das Jugendbuch Space Cadet Weltraumkadetten. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Das astronomische Symbol des Planeten Venus gilt als panathinaikos shop Repräsentation des Handspiegels william hill casino free spins no deposit namensgebenden römischen Liebesgöttin Venus: Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Daneben gibt es auch chlor - und phosphorhaltige Aerosole. Mai bedeckte die Venus für etwa 10 Minuten casino james bond den Merkur. Das Gebilde hatte eine höhere Temperatur als die atmosphärische Umgebung und zog nicht, wie die Wolkendecke insgesamt, mit den schnellen Winden nach Westen, sondern stand mit seinem Zentrum weitgehend hertha bsc meister über dem Westrand des äquatorialen Hochlands Aphrodite Terra. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Aber keine dieser Raumsonden erreichte intakt die Venusoberfläche. Auf der Erde ziehen sich die längsten Lavarinnen allerdings nur einige Dutzend Kilometer hin. Auf der Erde ziehen sich die längsten Lavarinnen allerdings nur einige Dutzend Kilometer hin. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Wie finde ich die neuen Satzbeispiele? Die ersten und letzten beiden Geschwindigkeitsänderungen müssen dabei für die Gesamtbilanz aufgrund des Oberth Effect nur quadratisch addiert werden. Dieser Artikel wurde am Das Interesse der Geologen aus der kommunistischen Sowjetunion richtet sich auf eine Art natürlichen Reaktor auf der Oberfläche der Venus, den Golkondakrater, in dem sich nach einem Meteoriteneinschlag radioaktive Erze bilden. Oktober in einen Venusorbit ein. Das sind mindestens doppelt so viel wie bisher auf der Landfläche der Erde nachgewiesen sind siehe auch: April zu dem Schluss gekommen, dass mindestens drei anscheinend durch Mantel-Plumes angehobene Regionen vor 2,5 Millionen bis Sie zählt zu den vier erdähnlichen Planeten , die auch terrestrische oder Gesteinsplaneten genannt werden. Französisch kanadisches Französisch venir en [ ou par le ] train. Der Magellansonde verdanken wir die besten der heute verfügbaren Karten der Venus. Es ist jedoch viel zu schwach, um mit viel einfacheren Teleskopen gesehen werden zu können. Französisch kanadisches Französisch y venir. Sie bestehen aus parkettmusterartig gebrochenen Blöcken mit jeweils bis über 20 Kilometer Breite, die anscheinend durch tektonische Spannungen deformiert worden sind.

Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0. Because its rotation is so slow, Venus is very close to spherical.

Venus may have formed from the solar nebula with a different rotation period and obliquity, reaching its current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations and tidal effects on its dense atmosphere, a change that would have occurred over the course of billions of years.

Venus has no natural satellites. An alternative explanation for the lack of satellites is the effect of strong solar tides, which can destabilize large satellites orbiting the inner terrestrial planets.

To the naked eye , Venus appears as a white point of light brighter than any other planet or star apart from the Sun. Venus "overtakes" Earth every days as it orbits the Sun.

Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported " unidentified flying object ".

As it orbits the Sun, Venus displays phases like those of the Moon in a telescopic view. The planet appears as a small and "full" disc when it is on the opposite side of the Sun at superior conjunction.

Venus shows a larger disc and "quarter phase" at its maximum elongations from the Sun, and appears its brightest in the night sky.

The planet presents a much larger thin "crescent" in telescopic views as it passes along the near side between Earth and the Sun. Venus displays its largest size and "new phase" when it is between Earth and the Sun at inferior conjunction.

Its atmosphere is visible through telescopes by the halo of sunlight refracted around it. The latest pair was June 8, and June 5—6, The transit could be watched live from many online outlets or observed locally with the right equipment and conditions.

The preceding pair of transits occurred in December and December ; the following pair will occur in December and December Historically, transits of Venus were important, because they allowed astronomers to determine the size of the astronomical unit , and hence the size of the Solar System as shown by Horrocks in The pentagram of Venus is the path that Venus makes as observed from Earth.

Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus repeat very near a Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records.

Astronomer Edmund Halley calculated its maximum naked eye brightness in , when many Londoners were alarmed by its appearance in the daytime. French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once witnessed a daytime apparition of the planet while at a reception in Luxembourg.

A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light —an apparent weak illumination of its dark side, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase.

The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in , but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed.

Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it could be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright, crescent-shaped object.

Though some ancient civilizations referred to Venus both as the "morning star" and as the "evening star", names that reflect the assumption that these were two separate objects, the earliest recorded observations of Venus by the ancient Sumerians show that they recognized Venus as a single object, [] and associated it with the goddess Inanna.

The ancient Greeks also initially believed Venus to be two separate stars: Phosphorus , the morning star, and Hesperus , the evening star.

In the second century, in his astronomical treatise Almagest , Ptolemy theorized that both Mercury and Venus are located between the Sun and the Earth.

When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phase , and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase.

This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centred on Earth.

The transit of Venus was accurately predicted by Jeremiah Horrocks and observed by him and his friend, William Crabtree , at each of their respective homes, on 4 December 24 November under the Julian calendar in use at that time.

The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.

Later, American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction , providing further evidence for an atmosphere.

Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic , radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed.

The first ultraviolet observations were carried out in the s, when Frank E. Ross found that ultraviolet photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation.

He suggested this was due to a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it. Spectroscopic observations in the s gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation.

Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found he could not detect any rotation.

He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value.

Radar observations in the s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in On 18 October , the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments.

In , Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.

In , the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white. In the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers.

NASA obtained additional data in with the Pioneer Venus project that consisted of two separate missions: ESA concluded that mission in December It would be controlled by a mechanical computer and driven by wind power.

Venus is a primary feature of the night sky, and so has been of remarkable importance in mythology , astrology and fiction throughout history and in different cultures.

Classical poets such as Homer , Sappho , Ovid and Virgil spoke of the star and its light. Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon , some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: Nonetheless, a cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.

The Sumerians associated the planet with the goddess Inanna known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians , and their myths of Inanna are often allegories for the apparent motions and cycles of the planet.

Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology [] means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit.

One of the nine Navagraha , it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu , preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.

Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malay. The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star.

The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form.

The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere.

Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end.

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: The speculation of the existence of life on Venus decreased significantly since the early s, when spacecraft began studying Venus and it became clear that the conditions on Venus are extreme compared to those on Earth.

A few scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the lower-temperature, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.

This has led to proposals to use aerostats lighter-than-air balloons for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Venus disambiguation. Second planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

A real-colour image taken by Mariner 10 processed from two filters. The surface is obscured by thick sulfuric acid clouds.

Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt Geology of Venus and Volcanology of Venus.

Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in , revealed by observations in the ultraviolet band by Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Global radar view of Venus without the clouds from Magellan between and Green colour — water vapour, red — carbon dioxide, WN — wavenumber other colours have different meanings, lower wavelengths on the right, higher on the left.

Transit of Venus and Transit of Venus, Observations and explorations of Venus. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May , although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.

Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 10 April Orbital Elements", "Time Span: Sun" should be defaulted to.

Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy.

Archived from the original PDF on 26 May Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 12 April Explicit use of et al. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 19 April Journal of Geophysical Research: The New Solar System 4th ed.

Retrieved 12 July The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Retrieved 4 February The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflght.

Retrieved 29 April Encyclopedia of the Solar System 3rd ed. Archived from the original PDF on 23 October Analysis of a random sample of thirty-six test areas".

Earth, Moon, and Planets. Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

Journal of Geophysical Research. Volcanoes of the Solar System. Retrieved 13 January United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 22 October Advances in Space Research.

National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 20 June Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 19 June Best evidence yet for active volcanism". Archived from the original on 19 June Implications for planetary resurfacing" PDF.

The Planetary System 3rd ed. Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Introduction to planetary science: Encyclopedia of the Solar System.

Retrieved 12 January Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 21 December Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System 2nd ed.

Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved July 27, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society.

Archived from the original on 16 August Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Planetary and Space Science.

Kosmicheskie Issledovaniia Cosmic Research. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 16 October Reports on Progress in Physics.

Washington University in St Louis. Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 17 January The New York Times.

Retrieved 8 August HITRAN is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in the atmosphere.

Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics. Ovid uses acidalia only in the latter sense. It is likely a literary conceit, not a cultic epithet.

Venus Caelestis is the earliest known Roman recipient of a taurobolium a form of bull sacrifice , performed at her shrine in Pozzuoli on 5 October This form of the goddess, and the taurobolium, are associated with the "Syrian Goddess", understood as a late equivalent to Astarte , or the Roman Magna Mater , the latter being another supposedly Trojan "Mother of the Romans" [54].

Venus Calva "Venus the bald one" , a legendary form of Venus, attested only by post-Classical Roman writings which offer several traditions to explain this appearance and epithet.

In one, it commemorates the virtuous offer by Roman matrons of their own hair to make bowstrings during a siege of Rome.

Venus Erycina " Erycine Venus" , a Punic idol of Astarte captured from Sicily and worshiped in Romanised form by the elite and respectable matrons at a temple on the Capitoline Hill.

It was considered suitable for "common girls" and prostitutes ". Venus Frutis honoured by all the Latins with a federal cult at the temple named Frutinal in Lavinium.

Venus Felix "Lucky Venus" , probably a traditional epithet, later adopted by the dictator Sulla. This epithet is also used for a specific sculpture at the Vatican Museums.

Venus Genetrix "Venus the Mother" , as a goddess of motherhood and domesticity, with a festival on September 26, a personal ancestress of the Julian lineage and, more broadly, the divine ancestress of the Roman people.

Venus Kallipygos "Venus with the beautiful buttocks" , worshiped at Syracuse. Venus Libertina "Venus the Freedwoman " , probably arising through the semantic similarity and cultural inks between libertina as "a free woman" and lubentina possibly meaning "pleasurable" or "passionate".

Further titles or variants acquired by Venus through the same process, or through orthographic variance, include Libentia, Lubentina, and Lubentini.

Some sources associate her with the myrtle-tree. Christian writers described her as a goddess of sloth and laziness. It was supposedly funded by fines imposed on women found guilty of adultery.

Venus as a universal, natural creative force that informs the physical world. She is addressed as "Alma Venus" "Mother Venus" by Lucretius in the introductory lines of his vivid, poetic exposition of Epicurean physics and philosophy, De Rerum Natura.

Venus Verticordia "Venus the Changer of Hearts". See Veneralia in this article and main article, Veneralia. Venus Victrix "Venus the Victorious" , a Romanised aspect of the armed Aphrodite that Greeks had inherited from the East, where the goddess Ishtar "remained a goddess of war, and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar.

In 55 BC he dedicated a temple to her at the top of his theater in the Campus Martius. She had a shrine on the Capitoline Hill , and festivals on August 12 and October 9.

A sacrifice was annually dedicated to her on the latter date. As with most major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology , the literary concept of Venus is mantled in whole-cloth borrowings from the literary Greek mythology of her counterpart, Aphrodite.

In some Latin mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars , the god of war. At other times, or in parallel myths and theologies, Venus was understood to be the consort of Vulcan.

Virgil , in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia , embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas.

In the interpretatio romana of the Germanic pantheon during the early centuries AD, Venus became identified with the Germanic goddess Frijjo , giving rise to the loan translation " Friday " for dies Veneris.

Roman and Hellenistic art produced many variations on the goddess, often based on the Praxitlean type Aphrodite of Cnidus. Venus became a popular subject of painting and sculpture during the Renaissance period in Europe.

As a " classical " figure for whom nudity was her natural state, it was socially acceptable to depict her unclothed. As the goddess of sexuality , a degree of erotic beauty in her presentation was justified, which appealed to many artists and their patrons.

Over time, venus came to refer to any artistic depiction in post-classical art of a nude woman, even when there was no indication that the subject was the goddess.

In the field of prehistoric art , since the discovery in of the so-called " Venus of Willendorf " small Neolithic sculptures of rounded female forms have been conventionally referred to as Venus figurines.

Although the name of the actual deity is not known, the knowing contrast between the obese and fertile cult figures and the classical conception of Venus has raised resistance to the terminology.

Venus by Frans Floris , Hallwyl Museum. Venus looking in the mirror, with Cupid attending, painting ca. Birth of Venus by Alexandre Cabanel.

Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev. When he emerges, he has to seek penance for his sins. The Dutch band Shocking Blue had a number one hit on the Billboard Top Ten in with the song titled " Venus ", which was also a hit when covered by Bananarama in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ancient Roman goddess of love, sex, and fertility. Venus on seashell, from the Casa di Venus, Pompeii.

Marcus Aurelius head covered sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter. Crispina , wife of Commodus , with enthroned Venus Felix holding Victory on reverse.

Venus with a Mirror ca. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Pokorny, Indo-European Etymological Dictionary , p. Eden is discussing possible associations between the Astarte or "Venus of Eryx " and the brassica species E.

Schilling "La relation Venus venia", Latomus , 21, , pp. To generate life, the watery matrix of the womb requires the virile warmth of fire.

To sustain life, water and fire must be balanced; excess of either one, or their mutual antagonism, are unproductive or destructive. II38; Ovid describes the rites observed in the early Imperial era, when the temple environs were part of the Gardens of Sallust.

Murcia had a shrine at the Circus Maximus. A Companion to Roman Religion , Blackwell publishing, p. The Punic Wars saw many similar introductions of foreign cult, including the Phrygian cult to Magna Mater , who also had mythical links to Troy.

See also Beard et al. A Conceptual Approach, Brill, , pp. The densely pillared style he criticises is pycnostylos. Book 3, 1, 5. Romans considered personal ethics or mentality to be functions of the heart.

A Conceptual Approach , Brill, , p. Lipka offers this apparent contradiction as an example of two Roman cults that offer "complementary functional foci".

For further exposition of nomen-omen or nomen est omen see Del Bello, Davide, Forgotten paths: Frutinal templum Veneris Fruti.

Volcanoes of the Solar System. Venus Erycina " Erycine Venus"a Punic idol of Astarte captured from Sicily and worshiped in Romanised form by the elite and respectable matrons at a temple on the Capitoline Hill. Sun" should be defaulted to. Views Read View source View history. Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 16 October Varro rationalises the connections as "lubendo libido, libidinosus ac Venus Libentina et Libitina" Lingua Latina6, Venus comdirect orderkosten Earth every days as it orbits the Sun. The online traden of Venus is effectively isothermal ; it retains a constant temperature not only between day and night sides but between the equator and the poles. A Companion to Science Fiction. Romans considered personal ethics or mentality to be functions high 5 casino withdrawal time the heart. Veneralia Uefa europa league live Rustica Vinalia Urbana.

Venus deutsch - criticising

Die Täler wurden nach ihrem unterschiedlichen Niveau demnach zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten geflutet und die Lavaschicht könne nicht dicker als maximal ein Kilometer sein. In der Sowjetunion startete am 2. Dann kommt Venus Aphrodite und berührt uns. Innerhalb der Wolken hätten von Gewittern aufleuchtende Blitze bei Nacht auffallen müssen, aber auf der Nachtseite der Venus konnten keine entsprechenden Leuchterscheinungen beobachtet werden. Französisch kanadisches Französisch venir de la campagne personne:

On 18 October , the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments.

In , Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.

In , the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white. In the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers.

NASA obtained additional data in with the Pioneer Venus project that consisted of two separate missions: ESA concluded that mission in December It would be controlled by a mechanical computer and driven by wind power.

Venus is a primary feature of the night sky, and so has been of remarkable importance in mythology , astrology and fiction throughout history and in different cultures.

Classical poets such as Homer , Sappho , Ovid and Virgil spoke of the star and its light. Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon , some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: Nonetheless, a cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.

The Sumerians associated the planet with the goddess Inanna known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians , and their myths of Inanna are often allegories for the apparent motions and cycles of the planet.

Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology [] means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit. One of the nine Navagraha , it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu , preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.

Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malay. The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star.

The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form.

The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere.

Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end.

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: The speculation of the existence of life on Venus decreased significantly since the early s, when spacecraft began studying Venus and it became clear that the conditions on Venus are extreme compared to those on Earth.

A few scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the lower-temperature, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.

This has led to proposals to use aerostats lighter-than-air balloons for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Venus disambiguation. Second planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

A real-colour image taken by Mariner 10 processed from two filters. The surface is obscured by thick sulfuric acid clouds.

Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt Geology of Venus and Volcanology of Venus.

Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in , revealed by observations in the ultraviolet band by Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Global radar view of Venus without the clouds from Magellan between and Green colour — water vapour, red — carbon dioxide, WN — wavenumber other colours have different meanings, lower wavelengths on the right, higher on the left.

Transit of Venus and Transit of Venus, Observations and explorations of Venus. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May , although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.

Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 10 April Orbital Elements", "Time Span: Sun" should be defaulted to.

Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy.

Archived from the original PDF on 26 May Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 12 April Explicit use of et al. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 19 April Journal of Geophysical Research: The New Solar System 4th ed.

Retrieved 12 July The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Retrieved 4 February The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflght.

Retrieved 29 April Encyclopedia of the Solar System 3rd ed. Archived from the original PDF on 23 October Analysis of a random sample of thirty-six test areas".

Earth, Moon, and Planets. Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

Journal of Geophysical Research. Volcanoes of the Solar System. Retrieved 13 January United States Geological Survey.

Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 22 October Advances in Space Research. National Space Science Data Center.

Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 20 June Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 19 June Best evidence yet for active volcanism". Archived from the original on 19 June Implications for planetary resurfacing" PDF.

The Planetary System 3rd ed. Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Introduction to planetary science: Encyclopedia of the Solar System.

Retrieved 12 January Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 21 December Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System 2nd ed.

Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved July 27, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society.

Archived from the original on 16 August Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Planetary and Space Science.

Kosmicheskie Issledovaniia Cosmic Research. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 16 October Reports on Progress in Physics.

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Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: The British Museum Press. Retrieved 10 January Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 3: Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth.

Science and Civilisation in China: Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Mathematics and Physical Sciences".

History of Oriental Astronomy: The Sun Recorded Through History. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Retrieved 10 May Mikhail Lomonosov and the discovery of the atmosphere of Venus during the transit.

As goddess of love and sex, Venus played an essential role at Roman prenuptial rites and wedding nights, so myrtle and roses were used in bridal bouquets.

Venus was also a patron of the ordinary, everyday wine drunk by most Roman men and women; the seductive powers of wine were well known. In the rites to Bona Dea , a goddess of female chastity, [19] Venus, myrtle and anything male were not only excluded, but unmentionable.

The rites allowed women to drink the strongest, sacrificial wine, otherwise reserved for the Roman gods and Roman men; the women euphemistically referred to it as "honey".

Roman generals given an ovation , a lesser form of Roman triumph , wore a myrtle crown, perhaps to purify themselves and their armies of blood-guilt.

The ovation ceremony was assimilated to Venus Victrix "Victorious Venus" , who was held to have granted and purified its relatively "easy" victory.

Fabius Gurges in the heat of a battle against the Samnites. It was dedicated in BC, at a site near the Aventine Hill , and was supposedly funded by fines imposed on Roman women for sexual misdemeanours.

Its dedication date connects Venus Obsequens to the Vinalia rustica festival. Rome laid siege to Eryx , offered its goddess a magnificent temple as reward for her defection, captured her image, and brought it to Rome.

Roman tradition made Venus the mother and protector of the Trojan prince Aeneas , ancestor of the Roman people. The Capitoline cult to Venus seems to have been reserved to higher status Romans.

The general and dictator Sulla adopted Felix "Lucky" as a surname, acknowledging his debt to heaven-sent good fortune and his particular debt to Venus Felix , for his extraordinarily fortunate political and military career.

He claimed the favours of Venus Victrix in his military success and Venus Genetrix as a personal, divine ancestress — apparently a long-standing family tradition among the Julii.

When Caesar was assassinated, his heir, Augustus , adopted both claims as evidence of his inherent fitness for office, and divine approval of his rule.

Vitruvius recommends that any new temple to Venus be sited according to rules laid down by the Etruscan haruspices , and built "near to the gate" of the city, where it would be less likely to contaminate "the matrons and youth with the influence of lust".

It was the largest temple in Ancient Rome. Venus was offered official state-sponsored cult in certain festivals of the Roman calendar.

Her sacred month was April Latin Mensis Aprilis which Roman etymologists understood to derive from aperire , "to open," with reference to the springtime blossoming of trees and flowers.

At first, this statue was probably housed in the temple of Fortuna Virilis , perhaps as divine reinforcement against the perceived moral and religious failings of its cult.

In BC Venus Verticordia was given her own temple. Vinalia urbana April 23 , a wine festival shared by Venus and Jupiter , king of the gods.

Venus was patron of " profane " wine, for everyday human use. Jupiter was patron of the strongest, purest, sacrificial grade wine, and controlled the weather on which the autumn grape-harvest would depend.

At this festival, men and women alike drank the new vintage of ordinary, non-sacral wine in honour of Venus, whose powers had provided humankind with this gift.

Vinalia Rustica August 19 , originally a rustic Latin festival of wine, vegetable growth and fertility.

Kitchen gardens and market-gardens, and presumably vineyards were dedicated to her. Varro insists that the day was sacred to Jupiter, whose control of the weather governed the ripening of the grapes; but the sacrificial victim, a female lamb agna , may be evidence that it once belonged to Venus alone.

A festival of Venus Genetrix September 26 was held under state auspices from 46 BC at her Temple in the Forum of Caesar , in fulfillment of a vow by Julius Caesar , who claimed her personal favour as his divine patron, and ancestral goddess of the Julian clan.

Caesar dedicated the temple during his unprecedented and extraordinarily lavish quadruple triumph. Like other major Roman deities, Venus was given a number of epithets that referred to her different cult aspects, roles, and her functional similarities to other deities.

Her "original powers seem to have been extended largely by the fondness of the Romans for folk-etymology, and by the prevalence of the religious idea nomen-omen which sanctioned any identifications made in this way.

Ovid uses acidalia only in the latter sense. It is likely a literary conceit, not a cultic epithet. Venus Caelestis is the earliest known Roman recipient of a taurobolium a form of bull sacrifice , performed at her shrine in Pozzuoli on 5 October This form of the goddess, and the taurobolium, are associated with the "Syrian Goddess", understood as a late equivalent to Astarte , or the Roman Magna Mater , the latter being another supposedly Trojan "Mother of the Romans" [54].

Venus Calva "Venus the bald one" , a legendary form of Venus, attested only by post-Classical Roman writings which offer several traditions to explain this appearance and epithet.

In one, it commemorates the virtuous offer by Roman matrons of their own hair to make bowstrings during a siege of Rome.

Venus Erycina " Erycine Venus" , a Punic idol of Astarte captured from Sicily and worshiped in Romanised form by the elite and respectable matrons at a temple on the Capitoline Hill.

It was considered suitable for "common girls" and prostitutes ". Venus Frutis honoured by all the Latins with a federal cult at the temple named Frutinal in Lavinium.

Venus Felix "Lucky Venus" , probably a traditional epithet, later adopted by the dictator Sulla. This epithet is also used for a specific sculpture at the Vatican Museums.

Venus Genetrix "Venus the Mother" , as a goddess of motherhood and domesticity, with a festival on September 26, a personal ancestress of the Julian lineage and, more broadly, the divine ancestress of the Roman people.

Venus Kallipygos "Venus with the beautiful buttocks" , worshiped at Syracuse. Venus Libertina "Venus the Freedwoman " , probably arising through the semantic similarity and cultural inks between libertina as "a free woman" and lubentina possibly meaning "pleasurable" or "passionate".

Further titles or variants acquired by Venus through the same process, or through orthographic variance, include Libentia, Lubentina, and Lubentini.

Some sources associate her with the myrtle-tree. Christian writers described her as a goddess of sloth and laziness. It was supposedly funded by fines imposed on women found guilty of adultery.

Venus as a universal, natural creative force that informs the physical world. She is addressed as "Alma Venus" "Mother Venus" by Lucretius in the introductory lines of his vivid, poetic exposition of Epicurean physics and philosophy, De Rerum Natura.

Venus Verticordia "Venus the Changer of Hearts". See Veneralia in this article and main article, Veneralia. Venus Victrix "Venus the Victorious" , a Romanised aspect of the armed Aphrodite that Greeks had inherited from the East, where the goddess Ishtar "remained a goddess of war, and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar.

In 55 BC he dedicated a temple to her at the top of his theater in the Campus Martius. She had a shrine on the Capitoline Hill , and festivals on August 12 and October 9.

A sacrifice was annually dedicated to her on the latter date. As with most major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology , the literary concept of Venus is mantled in whole-cloth borrowings from the literary Greek mythology of her counterpart, Aphrodite.

In some Latin mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars , the god of war. At other times, or in parallel myths and theologies, Venus was understood to be the consort of Vulcan.

Virgil , in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia , embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas.

In the interpretatio romana of the Germanic pantheon during the early centuries AD, Venus became identified with the Germanic goddess Frijjo , giving rise to the loan translation " Friday " for dies Veneris.

Roman and Hellenistic art produced many variations on the goddess, often based on the Praxitlean type Aphrodite of Cnidus. Venus became a popular subject of painting and sculpture during the Renaissance period in Europe.

As a " classical " figure for whom nudity was her natural state, it was socially acceptable to depict her unclothed. As the goddess of sexuality , a degree of erotic beauty in her presentation was justified, which appealed to many artists and their patrons.

Over time, venus came to refer to any artistic depiction in post-classical art of a nude woman, even when there was no indication that the subject was the goddess.

In the field of prehistoric art , since the discovery in of the so-called " Venus of Willendorf " small Neolithic sculptures of rounded female forms have been conventionally referred to as Venus figurines.

Although the name of the actual deity is not known, the knowing contrast between the obese and fertile cult figures and the classical conception of Venus has raised resistance to the terminology.

Venus by Frans Floris , Hallwyl Museum.

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